How much water and how often?
Author: Stefan Palm Date Posted: 13 January 2022
“How long do I need to water my lawn for and how many times per week?” These would have to be some of the most commonly asked questions and for good reason, especially when rain is scarce.
Most people want their lawns to get the right amount of water but no one wants to over water given the price of water. The answer to the question of how long to water for and how often is a bit more involved than most people think and without trying to overcomplicate the issue, there are a few considerations:
- The type of soil you have
- Type of lawn you have
- Watering method
- Position in the garden
- Which season we are in
- How green you want your lawn to be
The type of soil you have will determine how much water it can hold and how penetrable it is which is a key piece of information when considering how much water your lawn will need. For example, clay soil can hold considerably more water than sandy soil but it takes longer to penetrate in. Using this information, if you had Clay soil, you can water less frequently (because it holds more water) but you’re best to water with a method that delivers water in a slower fashion like drippers or an eco rotator type sprinkler. Water tends to run off clay soils if you apply it too fast and can also pool in low spots.
On the contrary, sandy soils have the potential to absorb water quickly but don’t hold as much so more regular waterings for shorter periods of time would be in order.
Type of lawn:
Knowing what type of lawn you have can help you know how often and how much. Some lawns are more drought tolerant than others. For example lawns like kikuyu, couch and buffalo use far less water than lawns like tall fescue, rye and bluegrass. Kikuyu and Couch are truly drought-tolerant. Once established, there is generally enough natural rainfall in Adelaide to keep them alive so technically you don’t need to water them at all! I wouldn’t recommend this type of management but it goes to show how resilient these lawns are and how wide the spectrum of answers to these questions can be. If you do go down this path, lawns like these will dry out and go brown during the summer and then recover when the autumn rains come around.
Typically, lawns like tall fescue, rye and bluegrass are thirsty and don't tolerate their root system drying out. In South Australia, they'll need watering as much as three times per week during summer to keep them happy.
The way you water your lawn will often determine how often and how long for. The most common ways to water your lawn include pop up sprinklers, subsurface drippers and hand watering.
- Hand watering (which is inefficient on a lawn) will require you to water the most frequently because you typically won't stand there for long enough to deliver a deep watering.
- Pop up sprinklers are the most common way to water your lawn. The frequency and length of time you leave them on will depend on the type you use. Traditional pop up's deliver water quickly so you don’t need to leave them on as long (around 30 minutes per zone can be enough). Newer technology sprinklers like Hunter MP rotators or Rainbird R-Vans deliver water more slowly and efficiently. It takes these types of sprinklers twice as long to put out the same amount of water as a traditional pop-up which is one of the main reasons they are a better choice than a traditional pop-up! MP rotators and R-Vans ultimately use less water and do a much more efficient job of delivering it.
- Subsurface or underground drippers require you to water often during the warmer months - as much as 3 times per week. There are many reasons for this but the main one is because they deliver water so slowly. This can mess with your head a bit when you first install them because you think that you must be using a lot of water but this isn't the case when the system is installed correctly. Even though you are watering frequently, this is the most efficient watering method, mostly because you are delivering water straight to the root zone and are avoiding run-off and evaporation.
Which season we are in:
Daytime temperatures and the volume and frequency of rain will of course play a major role in how much and how often you need to water. Heat affects the evaporation rate in the soil and increases the transpiration rate of the lawn meaning more water is required. Wind dries out the soil faster and then there is competition from other plants around the garden vying for the same water. Obviously, the warmer it is, the more frequently you’ll need to water.
Position in the garden:
This is a no-brainer but I’ll say it anyway – lawns in the shade will require less water than lawns in full sun so keep this in mind when deciding how much water to apply.
As you can see, there isn’t really a one-size-fits-all answer because circumstances can vary so much – and I haven’t even started on wetting agents! Those that know me know that I have a tendency to talk a lot about wetting agents but that’s a topic for another day, but I will say this: Wetting agents have the ability to drastically reduce the amount of water you apply to your lawn!
I know. I haven’t answered the question… How much and how often… The real answer is as much as the lawn needs, depending on how green you want it to be. If I had to make some generalisations, most warm-season lawns (couch, kikuyu and buffalo) in South Australia will do their best during the warmer months with around 25mm per week of water to keep them green and lush during the warm months of the year. They will survive on less but they’ll potentially lose some colour till more water is available again. When you water, you want to get the soil wet down to about 50mm deep. You can test this by digging a small inspection hole after watering. If it didn’t get down that far, water for longer. If you didn’t get any water penetration at all after watering check that your soil isn’t non-wetting. By doing this you soon discover how long you need to water for. You’ll also discover how long it takes for your soil to dry out. For what it's worth, I have a Santa Ana lawn at home that I like to keep lush and green all year round. It's growing in full sun, on clay. Using a Rainbird Coppershield subsurface drip system, I water twice per week during spring and summer for about half an hour each time which seems to do the job. My neighbour has a kikuyu lawn and isn't as particular as I am. They have traditional pop-ups and don't use them very often - around once per fortnight I think. While their lawn isn't as green as mine, it's still alive and presentable.